Author Archive for Enoch Charles

Enoch Charles

Book Review by Andrew Williams: Scripting Pentecost: A Study of Pentecostals, Worship and Liturgy

Monday, October 10th, 2016 by Enoch Charles

Mark J. Cartledge and A.J. Swoboda, eds., Scripting Pentecost: A Study of Pentecostals, Worship and Liturgy. (London: Routledge, 2016). xi + 251 pp. Hardback, $149.95, ISBN: 9781472443274.

Contrary to common perception, a number of significant studies on Pentecostal and Charismatic liturgy and worship have already been completed. However, as the editors note, this study is unique in that the essays contained in this work focus on the nature of Pentecostal and Charismatic worship and liturgy from a theological viewpoint that provides both ‘breadth and depth’ (p. 3). Specifically, this volume focuses on liturgical rites and worshipping practices from historical, theological, and global perspectives.

The volume is organized into two main sections. The first section is comprised of four historical and three theological essays while the second section offers six global case studies. The thirteen chapters are written by a team of scholars that specialize in the field of Pentecostal and Charismatic studies. Therefore, Cartledge and Swoboda have gathered a group of qualified contributors on a wide range of issues including historical, constructive theological, and contemporary observed research that add to the current field of knowledge. The first four chapters cover various, relevant topics within Pentecostal and Charismatic worship and liturgy such as early Pentecostal preaching in North America (Leah Payne), parallelism between the Welsh and the Azusa Street revivals (Jennifer Miskov), classical Pentecostal liturgy (Aaron Friesen), and the emphasis on sung worship within Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity (Neil Hudson). Within the same section the attention shifts to constructive theological contributions of sung worship (Andy Lord), Pentecostal sacramentality and the altar (Wolfgang Vondey), and worshipping and living liturgically (Chris Green). The second section covers modern-day case studies spanning from North America (A.J. Swoboda), Europe (Anne Dyer), Kenya (Samuel Muindi), Myanmar (Denise Ross), Venezuela (Greg Burch), and Papua New Guinea (Sarita Gallagher). Each case study focuses on a particular topic within liturgy and worship that emerges from their own unique contexts.

Although scholars and students of Renewal studies might not look to purchase this volume for their personal library due to its high cost, they certainly should take time at some point to read its contents for two reasons in particular. First, the global case studies fulfill a great need in Renewal studies to move beyond European and North American contexts. This is a major strength of this volume, as it gives Western readers a window into how the majority of Pentecostal and Charismatic Christians worship around the world and how their worship is shaping the global movement. Second, as Swoboda’s title suggests ‘God is doing something new’ in Pentecostal and Charismatic liturgy across the world, making this volume on the cutting edge of Renewal studies. Further, the frequent attention paid to the history of Pentecostalism as it relates to constructing Renewal theology makes this volume especially relevant to the field of scholarship. Nonetheless, in spite of these strengths and the overall robustness of the essays, I found myself wanting additional constructive theological contributions. Although I agree with the editors on the fact that the theological essays were informed by historical sources, the degree to which the contributors moved beyond them I believe warrants these three robust essays their own section within the volume, paired with at least one more contribution. The strength of the historical and contemporary research begs for additional theological constructions. However, this reproach notwithstanding, I believe this volume offers groundbreaking research postulating the necessity for Pentecostal and Charismatic contributions to worship and liturgical studies.

In my estimation, the editors were correct in saying that this work ‘complements and in some ways supplements what has gone before’ (p.10). Collectively, this volume pushes the borderline of knowledge and summons further investigation and evaluation. I highly recommend this edited collection for both scholars and students of Renewal studies, for it fills a gap in the existing scholarship by offering relevant and stimulating essays that open a new window into the world of global Pentecostal and Charismatic worship.

Andrew Ray Williams is a PhD Candidate at Bangor University, an ordained Foursquare pastor, and recent graduate of Regent University’s School of Divinity.

Book Review by Amos Yong: Vince McLaughlin, Ruach in the Psalms: A Pneumatological Understanding.

Wednesday, June 1st, 2016 by Enoch Charles

Vince McLaughlin, Ruach in the Psalms: A Pneumatological Understanding (Self-Published: Xlibris Corporation, 2012). 149 pp. Paperback, $19.99, ISBN: 9781479716517.

The back cover of this slender volume says that McLaughlin holds at least three terminal degrees (ThD, D.Litt., and PhD), was ordained as a Messianic Jewish Rabbi of Beth Messiah, is an Anglican Church Worldwide and Episcopal Missionary Church clergyman and Associate Rector at Church of the Word in Gainesville, Virginia, and serves at Provost and Academic Dean and Chairperson of Biblical Studies and Languages at Valley Forge Christian College’s (of the Assemblies of God) Woodbridge, Virginia, campus. Although the volume abstract and introductory chapter with standard literature review, methodology, and thesis sections combine to suggest that this was submitted originally as partial fulfillment for one of his graduate degrees (information available on the internet suggests he has at least three other masters degrees as well), there is neither a preface nor acknowledgments page that makes the connection explicit, nor is there any indication of the context amidst which the book was written. The book’s argument is that analysis of the ruach passages in the book of Psalms – the five appearances are 33:6, 51:10-13, 104:30, 139:7-12, and 143:10 – invite reconsideration of the notion that the Holy Spirit not only guided believers but also indwelt them during First Testament times, contrary to the common opinion that such indwelling did not occur until after the Day of Pentecost.

After a second chapter lays out the structure of the Psalms and defends reading its five books not only in terms of the Davidic covenant, but more precisely as windows into the (Davidic) “life of faith” (here following Walter Brueggemann’s orientation-disorientation-reorientation motif), three chapters engage with the ruach texts in canonical order: chapter 3 on the first two, chapter 4 on the middle reference, and chapter 5 on the final two. In each case, the form of the psalm in question is delineated, followed by exegesis and commentary, and then a section titled “pneumatic contribution” concludes the discussion. A brief summary chapter nicely encapsulates the volume and reiterates how the proposed “pneumatological understanding” (subtitle of the book) enables contemporary lives of faith in the power of the Holy Spirit.

McLaughlin makes no claims to be writing for the Hebrew Bible academy and this book ought not to be read as making such a contribution. For instance, the indwelling thesis was itself subject to critical scrutiny and counter-argued in James M. Hamilton, Jr.’s 2006 book, God’s Indwelling Presence: The Holy Spirit in the Old and New Testaments (B&H Academic), and the latter was not even referenced by McLaughlin. Further, although the reader is alerted to the “conscious avoidance of New Testament references so as not to bias the inductive approach within the Hebrew text” (p. 22), much of the rest of the book presumes not just a New Testament but post-Nicene trinitarian pneumatology in relationship to the Psalter’s ruach.

Yet those who approach Ruach in the Psalms aware of these episodic appearances of the divine breath across the pages of ancient Israel’s songbook and wanting further illumination of these passages – as indeed describes this reviewer, who is not himself a Hebrew Bible scholar – will benefit from this book, including its scholarly perspectives, since it is the first of its kind to wade into this arena. In addition, readers alert to the author’s charismatic sensibilities and commitments will appreciate his pastorally informed exegesis of these ruachic dimensions of the Psalter and perhaps even be inspired by his desire that his readers experience a deeper life in and with the Holy Spirit. Students of charismatic renewal thus have in this volume the first steps toward filling a gap in the literature on the pneumatology – or better: ruachology – of the Psalter, even if further scholarly work remains to be done.

Amos Yong

Professor of Theology & Mission, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California

Book Review by Amos Yong: Found Theology: History, Imagination and the Holy Spirit

Tuesday, January 12th, 2016 by Enoch Charles

Ben Quash, Found Theology: History, Imagination and the Holy Spirit (London: Bloomsbury, 2013). xvii + 317 pp. Paperback, $34.95, ISBN: 0567517926.

Ben Quash has a chair in Christianity and the Arts at King’s College, London, and this book presents a constructive proposal at this interface. What makes it noteworthy for readers of this Renewal Dynamics blog is that Found Theology is also an exploration in pneumatology and pneumatological theology. Three interrelated pneumatological theses are worth noting in this regard.

First, Quash’s argument, while detracting nothing from the givens of Christian theology – including Scripture as normative, and the church as the matrix of womb that nurtures faith – also wants to emphasize that Christian theologizing is an ongoing task that retrieves, reappropriates, and receives these givens in ways that are generative for new perspectives and understandings on this side of the eschaton. This thesis includes the idea that it is the Holy Spirit that is the theological engine that not only sustains but also helps human creatures to appreciate and join in such developments. In other words, the study of the Spirit (pneumatology, as such has traditionally been demarcated) unfolds in this book as a consideration of theological method: how is it that history contributes to theological and even doctrinal or dogmatic development? The case study here (part one) is on the translation of scripture, although Quash’s focus is not on translation into non-Western languages since the colonial era of Christianity (which has been the domain of the work of Lamin Sanneh and others) but on the emergence of Bibles in the English vernacular in the later medieval and early modern periods (here engaging Jewish theologian David Weiss Halivni, who some readers will recognize as being part of the contemporary Scriptural Reasoning conversations).

Second, aside from being an extended reflection in the ongoing methodology of finding, Quash’s discussions of the arts also are suggestive of how to recognize what is found. Deliberation on Vittore Carpaccio’s (1465-1525/1526) “The Entombment of Christ” and “The Meditation on the Passion” within a Gadamerian framework in general and through extended engagement of Hans Robert Jauss’s reception aesthetics and hermeneutics opens up a window into how new theological insights are uncovered. Quash further explores how these insights then influence and redirect the tradition of Christian theological reasoning. The moves made in this second part of the book could, however, have been made more robust pneumatologically with the use of Patrick Sherry’s pneumatological aesthetics (Sherry, Spirit and Beauty: An Introduction to Theological Aesthetics, SCM Press, 2nd ed., 2002) or Robert Johnston’s pneumatological theology of revelation and the arts (Johnston, God’s Wider Presence: Reconsidering General Revelation, Baker Academic, 2014).

Part three moves from the finding of the present and the found of the past to the anticipation of both in the future. Here Quash focuses on the imagination, in particular on human abductive capacities forged through the epistemology and philosophy of Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914), within the broader context of the achievements of Peirce interpreter and Jewish philosophical theologian in his own right, Peter Ochs. It is precisely such imaginative hypothesizing that is both nurtured by the work of the Spirit and that enables human minds, and hearts, to be open to the creative findings that lie beyond the horizon of any present moment.

One of the endorsements on the back cover highlights that Found Theology advances “a major pneumatological current in British theology.” I emphasize the last three words not because Quash ignores completely North American thinkers (obviously not, given the prominent role Ochs plays through the book’s pages) but because the book otherwise overlooks groundbreaking theologians of the imagination like David Tracy and, more relevant for Renewal Dynamics readers, pentecostal theologians who have done significant work on pneumatological epistemology, pneumatological imagination, and pneumatological-theological method (e.g., Wolfgang Vondey, Nimi Wariboko, James K. A. Smith, and their dialogue partners). Yet since Quash forges his case with the help of important British theologians like Rowan Williams and Daniel Hardy, his book can be read beneficially as complementary to works such as Spirit-Word-Community: Theological Hermeneutics in Trinitarian Perspective (by Amos Yong, Ashgate/Wipf & Stock, 2002) that chart the major pneumatological thrusts of Found Theology – the theology of the arts excepted – along trajectories mapped by the North American philosophical tradition.

Amos Yong

Professor of Theology & Mission

Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California

Book Review by Andy Lord: The Holy Spirit and Practical Theology

Thursday, November 19th, 2015 by Enoch Charles

Mark J. Cartledge, The Mediation of the Spirit: Interventions in Practical Theology, Pentecostal Manifesto Series (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2015) xv + 174 pp. Paperback, $29.00, ISBN: 9780802869555

Renewal is inherently practical and theological. It is about how individuals and communities encounter the Holy Spirit of Pentecost and then reflect on what is going on in the light of Scripture. Reflection both motivates and follows divine encounters and move Christians on in the way of salvation. Such reflection takes many forms with different approaches focusing on the historical, biblical, theological and missional aspects. In The Mediation of the Spirit, Mark Cartledge offers us renewal wisdom within the discipline of practical theology. Here is a practical, pneumatological, biblical, and salvational approach that builds on his many years of reflection and writing on the subject. It repays close study and promises fresh life for renewal in the church.

Practical theology as a discipline has its champions and detractors. Personally I’ve enjoyed placing the practice of renewal in local church settings alongside more systematic and mission approaches. Sometimes the lack of depth to the biblical, pneumatological and ecclesial reflection in practical theology limits its help in renewing and re-visioning churches for the future. One of this books great strengths is to articulate clearly such limitations and is addressed to those practising practical theology. It provides “interventions” to that discipline that point ways forward. If followed, it promises a greater renewal contribution that will be of wide benefit both inside and outside the movement.

A divide between practical theology and biblical studies is identified and seen to reflect a similar divide that is being overcome between systematic theology and biblical studies. Divisions between disciplines are particularly problematic for practical theology in which practice is always multifaceted, engaging a variety of disciplines. What is needed is a practical theological reading of Scripture that overcomes the divide. Cartledge argues that this will be hermeneutically reflexive, being up-front about our starting points; pay attention to the explicit or implicit praxis of communities and individuals described or inferred in the text; pay attention to the agency and the relationship between different agents in the text; will treat the text as holistic, hearing the varied voices present; and will bring contemporary questions and issues emerging from lived reality to the text. This is a holistic relational approach that also reminds us that renewal is personal, varied and connected.

Experience is at the heart of practical theology and yet it is a slippery concept to pin down. Cartledge shows that practical theology often has little to say about the theological nature of the experience being examined. This is particularly the case when the experience relates to the work of the Holy Spirit where the narratives used to explain experience in terms of pneumatology are only given cursory attention. What is needed is a more theologically astute and pneumatologically aware approach to reflecting on experience. Without this practical theology is reduced to more practical, secular and humanistic insights that may be of value but miss what those experiencing the Holy Spirit know is the main thing. There is a reminder here that renewal is not simply about experience but also theology which keeps us tied to the knowledge and working of God.

This is where a Pentecostal-charismatic intervention can be most usefully made to the discipline of practical theology. Key to his, Cartledge argues, is the concept of the mediation of the Spirit. This is developed to allow a deeper way into the understanding of “experience” and encourages the situation of practical theology within the intratrinitarian ministry of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Basic to this is the understanding that all experience of the Holy Spirit is mediated rather than “direct and unmediated” as it is often spoken of within renewal circles. Here Cartledge develops a strong case for mediation from within pentecostal and wider Protestant theology, without having to ignore the reality of spiritual power. In this he picks up the notion of concursus, as developed in a pentecostal direction by Joshua Reichard, as a way of affirming both the reception of spiritual power and human agency. This allows for a creative and varied approach to understanding the experience of renewal that is theologically rooted. More than this, Cartledge then engages with Scripture, in line with his practical approach, to examine mediation in Acts. He argues that “in Scripture we have a model for understanding the relationship between religious experience and pneumatology, and that it is inextricably connected to ecclesiology” (89). Thus experience, Scripture, theology and ecclesiology are brought together through the theme of mediation. Key in this are five propositions: that Christ mediates the Holy Spirit to the church; the Holy Spirit mediates Christ and the Father to the church; creation mediates the Holy Spirit to the church; the church mediates the Holy Spirit internally (via individuals, groups, worship and practices); and the church mediates the Holy Spirit externally (via individuals, groups, public worship, and practices) (109). This brings to the fore the study of ecclesial communities and their worship to practical theology as well as the interplay between such communities, Scripture and experience of the Holy Spirit.

This is a big picture approach that seeks to integrate the different threads that are often glimpsed in practical theology studies. It challenges all in renewal to seek a larger and more connected view of what is going on as the Holy Spirit works in our midst. The strength of this work is the broad challenge given to stretch our practices and theological reflection. At the same time it represents a weakness in the books lack of more specific examples. The book clearly aims at giving specific but higher level interventions that challenge the discipline of practical theology rather than being a practical theological study itself. Yet it does seek two more particular examples through re-examining an existing congregational study in the light of the approach to mediation suggested, and through exploring how the vital pentecostal theme of soteriology might be better approached in practical theology studies. Cartledge’s summary of understandings of salvation is of great value in itself as well as being part of this wider study. So although limited in scope these examples give hints of productive ways forward in the consideration of Scripture, pneumatology and ecclesial practices within practical theology. They also challenge renewal to be more deeply Scriptural, theological and ecclesial in practice.

The book finishes with a manifesto on practical theology that gives a strong and varied agenda for future studies. So might I find myself jumping more into practical theology? The evidence mounted here gives strong support that would encourage anyone to get involved. Yet it also gives a strong case for developing biblical, theological and interdisciplinary studies (if less strong on the missional side). So maybe it is more a case of letting the Holy Spirit mediate the call and empowerment for reflection, study and practice as He wills in our lives. This study is an important one and will be fruitful as we allow it to be a vehicle for the Spirit’s renewing work in all that we are and do.

Andy Lord

Nottingham, UK